4 Big Questions Early Childhood Professionals Have about Screening CLD Kids
We’re continuing our series recapping the 2019 MN Early Intervention Summer Institute, focusing today on Effective Practices for Dual Language Learners presented by Lillian Durán, PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education and Clinical Sciences at the University of Oregon. Dr. Durán began this information-rich session by making the case for bilingualism. In Minnesota, culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) families, including Hmong, Latino, and Somali families, are a growing part of our urban and rural communities. Research shows that supporting dual language learners’ native language as well as their acquisition of a second language benefits them in the short term and the long term.
For example, think of a 3-year-old who speaks Spanish with her family at home and is learning English at preschool. Will becoming fluent in Spanish interfere with her ability to learn English? Far from it. The evidence shows that supporting her Spanish will result in better academic outcomes in English. Not only that, but when she joins the workforce as an adult, being bilingual will be an economic advantage.
Dive deeper with online courses from CEED such as Working with Parents: Using Infant Mental Health Principles to Support Special Populations. See all of our professional development offerings.
Durán shared Four Big Questions that professionals like special education teachers and speech-language pathologists may share when working with CLD children:
Big Question #1: How should I screen and assess CLD children?
Prepare yourself by considering a family’s cultural background and previous experiences. Prepare the family for your meeting by letting them know what is going to take place and how they are expected to participate. If an interpreter or cultural liaison is helping you, remember to set aside twice as much time for your meeting as you would otherwise—you don’t want to be rushed. The Pacer Center’s publications can help parents understand the process and what resources are available to them, and they are available in Spanish, Hmong and Somali.
Big Question #2: Which screening tools should I use?
Some standardized screening tools are available in Spanish, such as the Early Screening Inventory-Revised (ESI-R). The Ages and Stages Parent Questionnaire (ASQ-3 and ASQ:SE) is available in Spanish, Hmong, and Somali. But the availability of many tools in languages other than English is still limited. Consider other screening options—parent report, observation in natural settings, testing to the limits, and dynamic assessment (test-teach-retest), for example.
Say you are working with an interpreter. Could you simply ask him or her to translate a screening tool? The short answer is no. For one thing, developmental trajectories differ in different languages. For example, in some languages, children may learn more verbs before nouns, or the reverse may be true. Moreover, the assessment tool will have a cultural bias in the objects and concepts that the child is expected to know. Additionally, the interpreter would need early childhood assessment training for their report of the child’s responses to be accurate.
Big Question #3: How do I decide which language to test in?
Test in both—or all—languages, but not at the same time or on the same day. And don’t switch back and forth during testing.
Big Question #4: How do I take culture into consideration?
Interpreters and cultural liaisons can be incredibly helpful, but they must be properly trained. In the real world, interpreters often don’t receive sufficient training to understand your role and theirs, best practices for interpretation, and how families can benefit from what you have to offer.
When using standardized screening tools, ask yourself, “How might this family’s culture and background experiences influence development differently than the population on which the tests we are using were normed?” Make sure to document your answer to this question in your report.
The Talk With Me Manual from the Minnesota Speech-Language-Hearing Association features a wealth of information with links to further reading for professionals working with CLD families.
Dr. Durán emphasized that many factors shape second language acquisition, and that there is enormous variation between children. Tailor your approach to each young learner’s individual needs.
Thanks to our presenter, participants, and volunteers, and to the Minnesota Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Special Education–sponsors of the Summer Institute for the past 36 years. Check back for lots more from Summer Institute 2019!
And How Early Childhood Professionals Can Help Kids Get the Benefits
Today’s blog post comes from Ariel R. Blanchette, a graduate student in occupational therapy at St Catherine’s University. Ariel volunteered at the 2019 MN Early Intervention Summer Institute, helping out with a session on Using Nature-Based Play in Early Childhood Programs to Support Development for All Children. The presenters were Sheila Williams Ridge, Director of the Shirley G. Moore Lab School at the University of Minnesota, and Anna Dutke, Nature Preschool Teacher and Nature Preschool Program Developer with Prior Lake Savage Area Schools. Williams Ridge is the author, with Julie Powers, of the book Nature-based Learning for Young Children: Anytime, Anywhere, on Any Budget.
I had a blast at the Summer Institute as a volunteer this year. It was a great opportunity to learn more about early intervention and early childhood education. In the session that I helped with, I learned about the importance of nature in childhood development and strategized with peers about how to incorporate elements of nature and nature-based play into classroom environments. We discussed a lot over the two days, but really focused on different ways to use nature (leaves, sticks, rocks, treasure hunts, bugs, etc.) to accomplish Individualized Education Plan goals and meet standards for kids in early childhood programs.
Let’s zoom out for a moment from sticks and bugs to big questions like why and how. The truth is, as Ridge and Dutke made clear, not all classrooms have four walls. Outside is a classroom and kids engage in learning in a different way outdoors than they are able to indoors. Nature-based play contributes to their social, emotional, and physical health. Nature experiences can also help adults to engage some children whose behavior we may find challenging. It’s good for children, it’s good for our relationships with them, and it’s good for our classrooms as a whole.
The Center for Early Education and Development (CEED) offers several related online courses. This fall, CEED is offering Challenging Behavior in Early Childhood: Bridging Educational and Mental Health Strategies for Child-Specific Interventions. In spring 2020, courses will include Infant/Toddler Movement and Brain Development: Understanding the Critical Connection and Preschooler Movement and Brain Development: Promoting the Critical Connection.
Need more persuasion? I recommend doing the homework that Ridge and Dutke assigned to Summer Institute attendees. (It will take you less than half an hour, and then you will probably want to head outside!) They assigned these three TED talks that shed light on some of the problems that nature-based play just might be a solution to.
The REAL Reason Children Fidget, and What We Can Do about It. Pediatric occupational therapist Angela Hanscom presents an evidence-based TED talk urging us to get outside with kids.
The Decline of Play. Researcher Peter Gray makes the case for free play to support children’s social and emotional development.
Nature Is Everywhere. We Just Need to Learn to See It. Environmental writer Emma Marris advocates for us to find nature not just in the wilderness but also in our own neighborhoods—no matter where we live.
I asked Ridge and Dutke what they thought was most important for participants to accomplish during this session. They had two answers:
- They wanted participants to have solutions to the challenges of bringing students outside to a natural space (as opposed to a playground).
- They wanted participants to develop new ideas on how to incorporate the natural world into their own classrooms.
I asked them what one thing they hoped participants would incorporate in practice tomorrow. They hoped participants would walk away from the Summer Institute understanding the importance of nature-based learning in their classrooms and how to advocate for it.
Ridge and Dutke encouraged participants to start small if that is what you (or your program) are ready for. Some resources to get ideas include:
- Nature Play at Home: A Guide for Boosting Your Children’s Healthy Development and Creativity by Sarah Konradi, Julie Murphy, Robin Moore, and Nilda Cosco
- Children and Nature Network
- Minnesota Children and Nature Connection
And since we are in Minnesota, here’s the National Weather Service’s wind chill chart.
Thanks to our presenter, participants, and volunteer Ariel R. Blanchette, and to the Minnesota Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Special Education—sponsors of the Summer Institute for the past 36 years. Enjoy the outdoors this summer!
Highlights from Summer Institute 2019: Social Communication Intervention for Diverse Toddlers and Their Families
Routines-based Intervention with a Cultural Lens
We’re sharing more information from the 2019 Minnesota Early Intervention Summer Institute in today’s post on “Social Communication Intervention for Diverse Toddlers and Their Families,” presented by Sheri Tracy Stronach, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Assistant Professor of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin – River Falls.
Early intervention professionals often work with families whose backgrounds differ from their own. Dr. Stronach reminded participants that each of us has a cultural background, and it is multifaceted. Building a solid relationship with a family depends upon acknowledging that the service provider and parent or caregiver may have different assumptions both about parenting and about communication.
Different cultures have different guidelines for:
- Personal space
- Eye contact
- Facial expressions
Our culture also influences our expectations for children. One difference between U.S. culture and other world cultures is the U.S. emphasis on individualism. American culture places a high value on independence and individual achievement. Broadly speaking, cultures in Asia or Latin America may instead foster a sense of collectivism. Parents with Asian or Latino cultural backgrounds might communicate with their children differently from American parents—for example, having more multiparty (as opposed to one-on-one) interactions or encouraging children to learn by observing rather than discussing what is happening.
If we value diversity, then why should these potential differences in communication styles matter? Simply put, they matter because our culture shapes our schools. Children of recent immigrants may be better prepared to succeed in American schools if they are familiar with the social communication patterns used in our education system.
Service providers can and should explain this to families so that they understand why they may be asked to practice communication patterns that they may not not used to.
Explore all of our professional development opportunities at the Center for Early Education and Development.
Dr. Stronach outlined the clinical implications for service providers working with diverse families.
- Reducing racial and ethnic health disparities is a national priority
- Clinicians need to be able to differentiate difference from disorder
- Improved detection of early delays leads to earlier intervention
Increasingly, professionals are using routines-based intervention as a best practice. In routines-based intervention, the service provider begins by learning about a family’s existing routines and gathering information about communication patterns and opportunities between caregivers and children. Dr. Stronach stressed the value of observing and listening, keeping in mind that family members are the experts on their family, culture, and child. The provider’s role is to help the family decide how to integrate communication opportunities into their everyday lives.
Thanks to our presenter, participants, and volunteer Kirsten Maxam, and to the Minnesota Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Special Education—sponsors of the Summer Institute for the past 36 years. Check back for lots more from Summer Institute 2019!
Elizabeth D. Peña and Christine Fiestas, “Talking Across Cultures in Early Intervention: Finding Common Ground to Meet Children’s Communication Needs.” Perspectives on Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Populations, Oct. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1044/cds16.3.79
Anne van Kleeck, Guiding Parents From Diverse Cultural Backgrounds to Promote Language Skills in Preschoolers With Language Disorders: Two Challenges and Proposed Solutions for Them. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, Aug. 2013. https://pubs.asha.org/doi/10.1044/lle20.3.78
Listening to Parents’ Stories Can Help Professionals Connect
It’s time for more valuable takeaways from the 2019 Minnesota Early Intervention Summer Institute! Today’s post was contributed by volunteer Katee L. Spaeth, currently a graduate student in occupational therapy at Saint Catherine’s University. Thanks to Katee for all her work and for sharing her perspective!
Premature Babies and Their Parents: Providing Information and Support to Promote Optimal Development was presented by Jolene Pearson, Ph.D., IMH-E®. Dr. Pearson is the author of Pathways to Positive Parenting: Helping Parents Nurture Healthy Development in the Earliest Months.
She began the session with a few notable developments in the history of caring for premature infants. Incubators, for example, were introduced to the U.S. at the turn of the 20th century by a German immigrant, Martin Couney. For several decades during the early 20th century, rows of incubators were displayed as an attraction in the Coney Island amusement park—babies and all!
Dr. Pearson also described her two overarching goals for the course:
Goal 1: to discuss the value of listening to parents and seeking to learn about their newborn’s story
For example, she shared tips on providing client-centered services, including what not to say to parents who have a pre-term child in the NICU.
Goal 2: to help professionals and parents hone their awareness of infants’ emotional state, read babies’ cues, and react appropriately
For example, she explained that infants primarily fluctuate between six states: crying, active alert, quiet alert, drowsy, active sleep, and deep sleep. A premature infant is feeling “just right” when in the quiet alert state. When a baby is overstimulated, we may observe cues like hiccups, yawning, looking away, back or lumbar arching, and discoloration.
Dr. Pearson reviewed techniques to comfort infants, like kangaroo care and hand cradling. Attendees used “teaching teddies” to practice modeling infant care for parents.
Other interactive activities included learning about new research through peer teaching. And participants co-created an online preemie care toolkit with evidence-based resources for professionals and parents. Topics covered included child development, parent support and postpartum adjustment, breastfeeding, and infant loss.
Interested in learning more about supporting families with infants and young children? The Center for Early Education and Development offers online courses in a range of related topics. Upcoming courses include Understanding Social and Emotional Development Using an Infant Mental Health Lens (enrollment is now open; the course starts September 16, 2019) and Working with Parents: Using Infant Mental Health Principles to Support Special Populations (to be offered in spring 2020).
Thanks to our presenter, participants, volunteer Katee L. Spaeth, and the Minnesota Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Special Education—sponsors of the Summer Institute for the past 36 years! Stay tuned for more highlights from the 2019 Summer Institute over the coming weeks.
The Center for Early Education and Development (CEED) was awarded a two-year contract from the Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS) to conduct observations of child care centers and train coaches for Parent Aware, Minnesota’s quality rating and improvement system for early care and education. Parent Aware is a voluntary program for child care providers in Minnesota. Participants receive a star rating (from one to four stars) as well as coaching and other benefits. The star ratings tell parents and caregivers whether the provider uses best practices to prepare children for kindergarten.
To gather information for the providers’ star rating, highly trained observers from CEED’s Early Childhood Program Quality Center (ECPQ) visit child care providers’ classrooms. CEED also provides experienced ECPQ trainers who support Parent Aware coaches. DHS chose the ECPQ at CEED to provide all these important services.
“We have actually been doing this work with DHS for the last eight years or so, but this is the first year that there was a competitive bidding process for the contract,” explains Amy Susman-Stillman, research associate at CEED. “We work really hard to train our observers to a high level so that providers and parents know they can trust their assessments. We also work to offer relevant, effective training. Winning this contract shows that we have done a good job, and that DHS recognizes we have well-trained staff and good results.”
How providers can build reflective relationships with families
The Center for Early Education and Development hosted the 2019 Minnesota Early Intervention Summer Institute on June 25 – 26. (Repeat participants usually call it the Summer Institute for short!)
Each year, early childhood professionals from around the state gather at St John’s University in Collegeville to immerse themselves in the latest research and learn new practical strategies for working with young children and their families. Participants can choose from eight two-day tracks or “sessions,” each exploring a different topic. We’ll be sharing takeaways from each of those sessions over the coming weeks.
Today we’re highlighting Tackling the Tough Stuff: Supporting Families at Risk Through Reflection and Relationship, presented by Angela M. Tomlin, PhD, HSPP, IMH-E, and Stephan Viehweg, LCSW, ACSW, IMHE (IV). Tomlin and Viehweg coauthored the book Tackling the Tough Stuff: A Home Visitor’s Guide to Supporting Families at Risk (Brookes Publishing).
Explore more professional development opportunities from the Center for Early Education and Development.
Building relationships with parents and caregivers
Supporting families is inseparable from forming relationships. Relationships are where growth and learning occurs. Parents and caregivers who feel trust and support from a provider are more likely to follow through on plans they make with the provider. They are more engaged with their children and more likely to fulfill their children’s needs. By supporting the parents, you are supporting the children.
The basics of getting off to a good start with a parent or caregiver include:
- Show an active interest in the parent and the parent’s needs
- Use active listening to really understand what a parent is telling you
- Be consistent and reliable—someone a parent can count on
When we show up for parents and caregivers like this, we’re modeling an approach they can use with their child:
- They can be interested and attentive to their baby’s needs and signals
- They can read their baby’s signals more accurately
- They can respond to signals in an appropriate, timely, and reliable way
Establishing a relationship with a family is, of course, easier said than done. Some families, for a variety of reasons, are hard to connect with. Yet Tomlin and Viehweg remind us that the families who are the hardest to connect with are those that need us the most.
Using the PAUSE framework
Tomlin and Viehweg created a problem-solving method they call the PAUSE framework, which can help providers build relationships with children and families during their everyday interactions.
The PAUSE framework allows providers and parents or caregivers to collaborate on positive ways to address challenging interactions with children—for example, when a parent is upset by a toddler’s tantrum.
- Perceive: Explore what is happening. Watch and listen as an interaction unfolds.
- Ask: Clarify what is happening. Ask the parent or caregiver open-ended questions.
- Understand: Explore why it is happening. In conversation with the family members, think about possible explanations for the situation.
- Strategize and Evaluate: Identify possible responses or solutions. What are some things the parent or caregiver could try? How and when will they know if the plan is working?
The PAUSE process is cyclical, and with each repetition a provider may deepen their relationship with a family. Not only that, but they are modeling a reflective approach to interactions that caregivers may use with children.
The Center for Early Education and Development offers a short online Introduction to Reflective Supervision/Consultation (enrollment is open now; the course starts September 9, 2019) as well as a range of relevant online courses for early childhood practitioners.
Thanks to the presenters, the participants, and volunteers Shonna Gnahn and Jessie Lindberg! Thanks also to the Minnesota Department of Education’s Division of Early Childhood Special Education—sponsors of the Summer Institute for the past 36 years! Stay tuned for more highlights from the 2019 Summer Institute.